Many megacities nowadays have laws that prohibit discarding waste items on the streets. In Singapore, fines reach up to $1000 and for the sake of littering chewing gums got banned. Hopefully, there are possibilities of generations to integrate a trash-aware behavior without monetary fines, the money could be used wisely otherwise! If people started realising that they are the first part of the long and challenging chain of waste management, they might start discarding trash into the provided containers.
Where would people think the waste goes if they throw it onto the ground? As we all know the answer, I think it is important to become aware of how much effort needs to increasingly get invested into waste organsiation.
So many small items like cigarette butts (up to 10 years degradation time!) are sprinkled through urban environments. And this needs to stop. If you use it, bin it! And ideally bin it properly (Recycling is another post!).